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Definition of competitiveness for photovoltaics and development of measures to accompany PV to grid parity and beyond


The Directive 2009/28/EC paves the way for a solid cooperation between Member States (MS) but also reinforces the international collaboration with third countries: European neighbours such as the Middle East and North African (MENA) Countries. Articles 9 and 10 of this Directive regulate the implementation of joint projects between one or more EU MS and one or more third countries in order to enhance the cross border exchange of renewable energies.

This document provides an overview of the implementation of the article 9 and 10 of the RES Directive and on the current electricity markets, legal and economical aspects in the selected MENA countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Turkey, Jordan).

Recommendations for European Policy Makers with regard to Article 9 of the RES Directive (2009/28/EC) 

Summary of the Recommendations for European Policy makers with regard to Article 9 of the RES Directive(2009/28/EC) - Arabic 

Proposed incentives for MENA countries: their legal analysis and their impact on the market, public and private financing

The directive 2009/28/CE paves the way for a solid cooperation between Member states but also reinforces the international collaboration with third Countries; European neighbours such as MENA Countries.

Articles 9, 10 of this directive regulate the implementation of joint projects between one or more EU Member States (MS) and one or more third Countries. Being the consumption of the imported renewable electricity in the European Community a fundamental requirement, interconnection and merchant lines play a key role for the development of joint projects under art. 9.

This report:

  • describes the European Energy Strategy and the cooperation with MENA countries
  • gives a brief introduction on the infrastructure package
  • provides concrete examples of how Member States have transposed articles 9 and 10 into their national legislation
  • analyses features of the international agreement together with the impact of the “Financing” joint projects on national support schemes or national budgets deriving from the development of these projects and
  • gives some recommendations to make joint projects happen.

Overview of PV Market developments and incentives in some MENA countries

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is of particular importance for the European Union (EU) regarding Policy, Commercial and Energy sector. For this reason and with a view to increase the regional integration and to foster the development of joint projects accordingly to the cooperation mechanisms provided under Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC, some MENA countries have been selected and studied as regards their electricity and PV markets.

This report aims to present, assess and compare available data from the selected MENA countries, as regards:

  • the existing status in electricity tariffs
  • the existing PV market and
  • the PV support schemes

The selected countries are:

  • Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Turkey, Jordan (interconnected and/or very close to interconnect).

The study takes into account the grid connection constraints with the perspective of importing electricity in EU. Download below:

Competitiveness of PV Electricity Imports from MENA Countries

Photovoltaic electricity produced in the MENA area where the Solar potential is huge has the potential to, one day, be imported in Europe and contribute to achieving a higher share of renewables in Europe's electricity mix. 

In the document below partners of the project have been looking at how economically it is likely that such imports compete with wholesale Power prices in the short or medium term. 

Investments Cost Analysis of Electricity Imported to EU from MENA

Importing PV electricity from MENA to Europe implies that interconnectors  should be in place. This is quite a challenge, since there is a variance of regulations being applied between the two regions.

In the frame of PV Parity the costs to upgrade and enhance the grid due to the PV penetration in the case of imports of electricity from MENA countries has been analysed in the framework of the article 9 of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED).

Additionally, the costs deriving from PV electricity flows from/to MENA countries as well as the costs deriving from PV investments have been estimated.

A cost of network reinforcement and the necessary interconnections with EU were assessed and estimated.

In order to thoroughly analyze the above costs, it has been very important to identify the critical issues/information in addition to finding useful and credible information.

In the following report the tasks hereafter have been fulfilled: 

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